In patients with severely impaired renal function or decreased urate clearance, the half-life of oxypurinol in the plasma is greatly prolonged. Patients should be treated with the lowest effective dose, in order to minimize possible side effects. The appropriate dose of allopurinol sodium for injection for patients with a creatinine clearance ≤10 mL/min is 100 mg per day. For patients with a creatinine clearance between 10 and 20 mL/min, a dose of 200 mg per day is recommended. With extreme renal impairment (creatinine clearance less than 3 mL/min), the interval between doses may also need to be extended.
As far as credentials as the person commented below, I do not care about that, I care more about the fact that you have the common sense and knowledge that many people lack these days. Just the fact alone that you studied natural healing methods for over 20 years is credential enough for me. I want to thank you for this very helpful info. I have been to numerous sites, due to lots of investigating myself when I became hormone deficient and my thyroid swelled beyond belief. This site being the best I have come across. It is sad that many people still argue and neglect the fact that most of our foods/products are no longer healthy/safe. It is estimated that 20 million Americans have some form of thyroid disease due to the changes in our food, water, and household
supplies. In the 1970’s they removed iodine from bread and replaced it with a substance called bromide and your thyroid can’t distinguish between them, yet the bromide has absolutely no nutritious value for your body, creating major problems in the future as your body needs the iodine to function properly. Please keep up the fascinating work and spreading the knowledge.
The β-Ο-linked glycosides (sennosides) are neither absorbed in the upper gut nor split by human digestive enzymes. They are converted by bacteria of the large intestine into the active metabolite (rhein anthrone). Aglyca are absorbed in the upper gut. Animal experiments with radio-labelled rhein anthrone administered directly into the caecum demonstrated absorption < 10%. In contact with oxygen, rhein anthrone is oxidised into the rhein and sennidins, which can be found in the blood, mainly in the form of glucuronides and suphates. After oral administration of sennosides, 3-6% of the metabolites are excreted in urine; some are excreted in bile. Most of the sennosdies (ca. 90%) are excreted in faeces as polymers (polyquinones) together with 2 – 6% of unchanged sennosides, sennidins, rhein anthrone and rhein. In human pharmacokinetic studies with senna pods powder (20 mg sennosides), administered orally for 7 days, a maximum concentration of 100ng rhein/ml was found in the blood. An accumulation of rhein was not observed. Active metabolites, . rhein, pass in small amounts into breast milk. Animal experiments demonstrated that placental passage of rhein is low.