When ligament tissue is examined under the microscope (see diagram) it can be clearly observed that the collagen fibres are arranged in a longitudinal pattern to resist the stress that is placed upon the ligament. The arrangement of the collagen fibres means that a great deal of force is required to damage ligaments. In a collision sport like football this force is generated by opposition players or when a player catches his foot in the turf and his whole body weight goes over one joint. This force produces structural damage to the joint capsule and ligaments, which is known as a ligament sprain.
A group of proteins known as mismatch excision repair (MMR) enzymes is capable of correcting errors of replication not detected by the proofreading activities of DNA polymerase. MMR enzymes excise an incorrect nucleotide from the daughter DNA and repair the strand using W-C pairing and the parent DNA strand as the correct template. 11 This is especially crucial for errors generated during the replication of microsatellite regions, as the proofreading activity of DNA polymerase does not detect these errors. To a lesser degree, MMR enzymes also correct a variety of base pair anomalies resulting from DNA oxidation or alkylation. These mutations include modified base pairs containing O6-methylguanine and 8-oxoguanine, and carcinogen and cisplatin adducts. 12,13 Mutations in the human mismatch excision repair genes MSH2 and MLH1 are associated with hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) syndrome. 14
What we do is cut the excess from the goatskin so that we end up with a round similar to our cow skin round. We then plug some holes around the perimeter of the skin and soak it in water until it becomes soft and workable. Once we're ready to mount the skin, we temporarily mount it on the flesh ring by weaving rope through the holes we've plugged. This keeps the skin in place during the early stages and assures that we have the right tension on it to begin with.