Investigations for Diabetic Retinopathy
If diabetic retinopathy is noted, color photographs of the retina may be taken and FLUORESCEIN ANGIOGRAPHY performed. This involves dilating the pupils and injection of a fluorescent dye into a vein in the arm. Photographs of the retina are taken rapidly as the dye passes through the retinal blood vessels. This test helps in determining if laser photocoagulation treatment is necessary. If treatment is to be done, it helps in identifying what structures and areas need treatment with laser.
OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY (OCT), which is newer non-invasive diagnostic modality provides a cross-sectional view of the retina and helps in quantifying the amount and type of swelling and guides the treatment.
The caudal approach to the epidural space involves the use of a Tuohy needle, an intravenous catheter, or a hypodermic needle to puncture the sacrococcygeal membrane . Injecting local anaesthetic at this level can result in analgesia and/or anaesthesia of the perineum and groin areas. The caudal epidural technique is often used in infants and children undergoing surgery involving the groin, pelvis or lower extremities. In this population, caudal epidural analgesia is usually combined with general anaesthesia since most children do not tolerate surgery when regional anaesthesia is employed as the sole modality.