The caudal approach to the epidural space involves the use of a Tuohy needle, an intravenous catheter, or a hypodermic needle to puncture the sacrococcygeal membrane . Injecting local anaesthetic at this level can result in analgesia and/or anaesthesia of the perineum and groin areas. The caudal epidural technique is often used in infants and children undergoing surgery involving the groin, pelvis or lower extremities. In this population, caudal epidural analgesia is usually combined with general anaesthesia since most children do not tolerate surgery when regional anaesthesia is employed as the sole modality.
With the numerous points we have to choose from for our steroid injections most will find the glutes and lateral (side) deltoid head to be the most comfortable and convenient points of administration. Injection sites such as calves and traps are highly warned against; although in terms of adequate injection sites they are fine, they can produce a fair amount of pain in the individual. No matter where you choose to inject always practice sanitary methods; do not reuse needles or syringes, clean the area thoroughly before injection and always sterilize with alcohol beforehand.