Steroid responsive autoimmune encephalitis

Steroid Responsive Meningitis - Samantha Goldberg BVSc MRCVS

Neck Pain and Fever in a Boxer--NAVA Clinician's Brief, November 2009
The Five Minute Veterinary Consult Page 388,
J AM Vet Med Assoc 201[10]:1553-8 Nov 15'92--Systemic Necrotizing Vasculitis in Nine Young Beagles.
J Vet Inter Med 4[2]:112 Mar/Apr'90 ACVIM 8th Annual Forum--Systemic Vasculitis {Canine Pain Syndrome} in young beagles
J Vet Intern Med 2[1]:26-35 Jan/Mar'88 123 Refs--Canine Meningitis:A Changing Emphasis
The Veterinary Record, June 17, 1978--Polyarteritis in a colony of beagles.
The Veterinary Record, April 7th 1973--Polyarteritis in the Dog: A Case Report   Dr. Roughie’s Questions and Answers- Steroid Responsive Meningitis-Vasculitis: The Disease With Many Names   Kasmin D. Bittle DVM   /images/Health/Dr-Roughie-ST-Column/
Neck Pain By Dr. J. E. Dillberger,  /images/Health/Dr-Roughie-ST-Column/

Because steroids are lipophilic, they diffuse easily through the cell membranes, and therefore have a very large distribution volume. In their target tissues, steroids are concentrated by an uptake mechanism which relies on their binding to intracellular proteins (or " receptors ", see below). High concentration of steroids are also found in adipose tissue, although this is not a target for hormone action. In the human male, adipose tissue contains aromatase activity, and seems to be the main source of androgen-derived estrogens found in the circulation. But most of the peripheral metabolism occurs in the liver and to some extent in the kidneys, which are the major sites of hormone inactivation and elimination, or catabolism (see below).

All bets are off the table when high-dose testosterone and its many metabolites are used illegally, such as with anabolic steroid abuse. Strokes, embolisms, and cardiovascular disease are all more likely, as is sudden death, and liver and kidney disease. 44 In women, acne, irreversible deepening of the voice, baldness, increased facial hair, enlarged sex organs, breast reduction, depression, and infertility have all been reported. In adult men that abuse anabolic steroids, acne, baldness, permanent infertility, gynecomastia, loss of libido, erectile dysfunction, testicle shrinkage, and profuse sweating are all reported side effects. Increased testicular cancer hasn't been reported, though. 45,46

A diagnosis is normally made on the basis of first excluding other causes of spinal pain (like bone or soft tissue infections, immune-mediated joint disease, infections) by obtaining a blood sample and performing radiographs. Then, cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) analysis is performed by obtaining a sample of CSF from the neck or lower spine (or both) in a sterile manner under general anaesthesia . Your pet will have dedicated one-to-one care during their CSF tap by one of our nurses from the prep nursing team who are trained and experienced in anaesthesia and sedation . The demonstration of inflammation and the presence of a specific type of inflammatory cell facilitate a presumptive diagnosis. Although infection is very unlikely, we will normally run a panel of various blood and urine tests to exclude this possibility.

Cells of the zona fasciculata and zona reticularis lack aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) that converts corticosterone to aldosterone, and thus these tissues produce only the weak mineralocorticoid corticosterone. However, both these zones do contain the CYP17A1 missing in zona glomerulosa and thus produce the major glucocorticoid, cortisol. Zona fasciculata and zona reticularis cells also contain CYP17A1, whose 17,20-lyase activity is responsible for producing the androgens, dehydroepiandosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione. Thus, fasciculata and reticularis cells can make corticosteroids and the adrenal androgens, but not aldosterone.

Steroid responsive autoimmune encephalitis

steroid responsive autoimmune encephalitis

A diagnosis is normally made on the basis of first excluding other causes of spinal pain (like bone or soft tissue infections, immune-mediated joint disease, infections) by obtaining a blood sample and performing radiographs. Then, cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) analysis is performed by obtaining a sample of CSF from the neck or lower spine (or both) in a sterile manner under general anaesthesia . Your pet will have dedicated one-to-one care during their CSF tap by one of our nurses from the prep nursing team who are trained and experienced in anaesthesia and sedation . The demonstration of inflammation and the presence of a specific type of inflammatory cell facilitate a presumptive diagnosis. Although infection is very unlikely, we will normally run a panel of various blood and urine tests to exclude this possibility.

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